Neuroscience - inspiration on Mental Operations

*causal reasoning* is the only mental operation that has significant substance

the supposed module can be activated to calculate hedonically optimal life *goals*

for the process of *decision-making*, it can calculate prediction, foresight

*abstraction* of elements in the descriptions of a set of perspectives on a situation, can aid *problem solving*, it uses abstraction, loss of detail as a way to describe a variable, to be filled in when a solution is found in the world or mind

*common sense* is suggested to involve:
embodied cognition, simulating the perception of a situation from a perspective
emotions, decision-making involving more than one dimension (kind of emotion) resolves differently than one kind of emotion (eg expressing everything in pleasure)
abstraction, as suggested in problem-solving, creating a concrete representation with room for uncertainty or a solution

*reasoning* is reported to take the forms:
relational reasoning
analogical reasoning
logical reasoning
induction and deduction

relational and analogical reasoning involves relations between features

logical reasoning involves rules & categories

deduction involves rules & symbols

induction involves representation of a larger set by a smaller set

so, in a way, all reasoning can be described as a process involving rules and levels of abstraction (levels of loss of certain features, while keeping others), which is the hallmark of an 'invariant'

'invariant' can be used to replace talk of
features, categories and symbols

the term invariant most naturally indicates the need of the brain to recognize similar or identical percepts, while the actual sensory input for a similar or single thing always varies (noise, light, distance, orientation)