History & Inventions

1100-1300 towns, universities, trades

(minds occupied with Christian & Greek thought)


1450 end of feudal system (church, agri)
Hswg heretics persec

1550 beginning of royal charters
old elites keep in control
hSwg slavery

1687 newton can describe
force and movement IN TIME
kickstarting science, tech

1688 british king loses all infl

absolut & final phase for royals

1780-90s britain loses usa, french rev

1800 industrial revolution 1
steam, fabrics
agri figured out, nl -> uk
napoleon's conquests

1860 economy takes a hit,
despite innov stm train, ship
uk rules india

1880 industrial revolution 2
electronic, light, com, appl

1905 einstein & planck
modern phsyics of
relativity & quanta

1914 & 1939 wwi and wwii
ended by atomic bomb
sim of it, start of computers

1920-1940s women's suffrage, hsWg rights
1940-1960s last colonies become indep
1950s last strong power church
1951 end of witchcraft law, Hswg
1954 death of Turing
hswG persec would end 80s in uk
cold war
1968 start of the internet: arpanet
supposed to be h-bomb
war resistant
1955-1975 vietnam war & hSwg civil rights
resistence leads to a big
push for rights, freedom, indiv
1978 information era: apple ii & pet

=== eof


15th century: Rifle in Europe
1439: Printing press in Mainz, Germany: The printing press is invented in the Holy Roman Empire by Johannes Gutenberg before 1440, based on existing screw presses. The first confirmed record of a press appeared in a 1439 lawsuit against Gutenberg.[205]
1605: Newspaper (Relation): Johann Carolus in Strassburg, Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (see also List of the oldest newspapers)[218][219]
1608: Telescope: Patent applied for by Hans Lippershey in the Netherlands. Actual inventor unknown since it seemed to already be a common item being offered by the spectacle makers in the Netherlands with Jacob Metius also applying for patent and the son of Zacharias Janssen making a claim 47 years later that his father invented it.
1630: Slide rule: invented by William Oughtred[221][222]
1642: Mechanical calculator. The Pascaline is built by Blaise Pascal
1745: Musschenbroek and Kleist independently develop the Leyden jar, an early form of capacitor.
1746: John Roebuck invents the lead chamber process.
1755: William Cullen invents the first artificial refrigeration machine.
1764: James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny.
1765: James Watt invents the improved steam engine utilizing a separate condenser.
1783: Claude de Jouffroy builds the first steamboat.
1783: Joseph-Ralf and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier build the first manned hot air balloon.
1790: Thomas Saint invents the sewing machine.
1800: Alessandro Volta invents the voltaic pile, an early form of battery in Italy, based on previous works by Luigi Galvani.
1804: Richard Trevithick invents the steam locomotive.[230]
1807: Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1810: Nicolas Appert invents the canning process for food.
1811: Friedrich Koenig invents the first powered printing press, which was also the first to use a cylinder.

1816: Francis Ronalds builds the first working electric telegraph using electrostatic means.
1822: Nicéphore Niépce invents Heliography, the first photographic process.
1822: Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer",[235] begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1847: Ascanio Sobrero invents Nitroglycerin, the first explosive made that was stronger than black powder.
1852: Henri Giffard becomes the first person to make a manned, controlled and powered flight using a dirigible.
1856: James Harrison produces the world's first practical ice making machine and refrigerator using the principle of vapour compression in Geelong, Australia.[240]
1859: Gaston Planté invents the lead acid battery, the first rechargeable battery.
1862: Alexander Parkes invents parkesine, also known as celluloid, the first man-made plastic.
1864: Louis Pasteur invents the pasteurization process.
1872: J.E.T. Woods and J. Clark invented Stainless steel. Harry Brearley was the first to commercialize it.[242]
1876: Alexander Graham Bell has a patent granted for the telephone. However, other inventors before Bell had worked on the development of the telephone and the invention had several pioneers.[243]
1877: Thomas Edison invents the first working phonograph.[244]
1879: Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison both patent a functional Incandescent light bulb. Some two dozen inventors had experimented with electric incandescent lighting over the first three-quarters of the 19th century but never came up with a practical design.[246] Swan's, which he had been working on his since the 1860s, had a low resistance so was only suited for small installations. Edison designed a high-resistance bulb as part of a large-scale commercial electric lighting utility.[247][248][249]
1885: John Kemp Starley invents the modern bicycle.[251][252]
1886: Carl Gassner invents the zinc-carbon battery, the first dry cell battery, making portable electronics practical.
1886: Karl Benz invents the first petrol or gasoline powered auto-mobile (car).[253]
1895: Guglielmo Marconi invents a system of wireless communication using radio waves.
1895: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen invented the first radiograph (xrays).
1898: Hans von Pechmann synthesizes polyethylene, now the most common plastic in the world.[256]
1899: Waldemar Jungner invents the nickel–cadmium battery.
1900: The first Zeppelin is designed by Theodor Kober.
1903: First manually controlled, fixed wing, motorized aircraft flies at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina by Orville and Wilbur Wright. See Claims to the first powered flight.
1904: The Fleming valve, the first vacuum tube and diode, is invented by John Ambrose Fleming.
1907: Leo Baekeland invents bakelite.



3500 bc wheel, civilisation (sumer)

3000 bc tin & copper makes bronze

2400 bc abacus

2000 bc alphabet & ink

1200 bc proceltic iron sword

1000 bc assyria lens & egypt water clock

0600 bc india first coins

0350 bc india water mill for grain

0300 bc china blast furnace

0150 bc greece astrolabe

0100 bc rome glass blowing

0100 egypt steam power

0700 china first paper money

0850 Banu Musa br. automatic fluteplayer

0868 first printed book (china)

0953 egypt fountain pen

0994 persia astronomical sextant

1000 Al-Biruni lunisolar analog computer

1090 china belt drive & chain drive

1200 water mill for forging

1200 china magnetic compass

1238 water mill for paper

1288 europe glass mirror

1300 first perspective in paintings

1300 water mill for sawing

1386 water mill for blast furnace

1400 Al-Kashi planetary analog computer

1451 Cusa concave lens for glasses

1456 Gutenberg printing press

1492 Behaim first surviving globe

1500 first etchings

1500 Da Vinci ball bearing

1540 Galilei presents sun center theory

1563 Habsburg postal timetable

1565 Gesner pencil

1609 Germany first news sheets

1620 Amsterdam prints corrant out of italy

1620 Oughtred slide rule

1623 Schickard mechanical calculator

1624 patent law in britain

1645 Pascal pascaline calculator

1657 Huygens pendulum clock

1665 Royal Society: Philosophical Transactions

1671 Leibniz stepped reckoner calculator

1687 Newton's 'principia' (classical mechanics)

1700 Cristofori piano

1709 Darby coke (from coal) for iron melting

1709 Britain Copyright Act

1714 Fahrenheit thermometer

1759 Darwin presents theory of evolution

1764 Hargreaves & Highs spinning jenny

1770 (?) first line shaft systems

1771 first edition Encyclopedia Britannica

1776 Watt improved steam engine

1788 John Walter founds The Times

1790 patent law in usa

1800 Volta voltaic pile battery

1801 Jacquard automatic punchhole-reading loom

1803 steam boat

1804 steam train

1814 The Times printed by steam

1822 Niepce photography

1822 Babbage designs first difference engine

1829 first typewriter

1831 Faraday (electricity generator) - the fundament

1834 Perkins refrigerator

1835 Henry relay

1837 Morse telegraph - the info revolution

1840 Britain penny post

1841 Sax saxophone

1846 The Economist & News of the World

1859 Plante lead acid battery

1853 Scheutzes difference engine (printing)

1860 Edison light bulb

1865 transatl telegraph

1868 Broca localization of language

1870 Britain national education act

1870 line shaft systems popular

1876 Gray first synthesizer

1876 Bell telephone

1877<b> Remington typewriter prototype<\b>

1878 Crookes cathode ray tube (crt)

1886 Kodak hand camera

1886 Daimler car

1887 Berliner gramophone

1887 Cajal stains and draws neurons

1890 Hollerith tabulating machine used for 1890 Census (later IBM)

1892 Ives color photography

1893 Tesla radio

1893 world expo chicago (.5b in today's $)

1896 Lumiere cinema show in London

1899 magnetic recording of sound

1903 Wright Brothers fly first airplane

1905 Einstein presents e=mc2 (modern mechanics)

1907 vacuum tube

1913 Ford introduces conveyor belt

1922 bbc founded

1923 Farnsworth tv

1927 Al Johnson in talkie (movie with sound)

1927 first Oscars awarded

1929 Berger eeg

1931 Rickenbacker electric guitar

1932 bbc empire service

1934 Hammond successful electronic organ

1937 Bode polyphonic synthesizer

1938 Orson Welles war of the worlds panic

1939 fm radio

1941 01 Zuse z3 first computer

1943 stereo music

1946 02 ENIAC 'Turing complete' computer

1947 Shockley, Bardeen & Brattain transistor

1948 Manchester Baby
(first stored-program, Williams tube memory)
executed its first program on 21st June 1948

1948 first LP, Wiener's book cybernetics

1950 1950s Atlantic Records uses 4 track

1951 03 Whirlwind computer w/ screen

1954 first TI silicon transistor

1954 programming language FORTRAN

1956 04 IBM RAMAC computer w/ harddisk

1958 live television from Africa (Eurovision)

1958 Kilby (TI) integrated circuit

1959 programming language LISP

1958 programming language COBOL

1960 Maiman laser

1962 Denisyuk 3d holography

1962 music cassette, Telstar satellite tv

1964 programming language BASIC

1964 Moog first commerc available synthesizer

1965 05 PDP8 popular computer, 50,000 sold

1967 Seiko quartz wrist watch

1969 bbc colour television

1969 ARPANET (first nodes of internet)

1969 Sony videocassette

1970 Sanyo, Canon, Sharp el pocket calculator

1971 Intel 4004 microprocessor

1972 programming language C & Smalltalk

1972 video cassette recorders on sale

1973 Motorola first handheld mobile phone

1974 'standard model' elementary particles

1975 06 Xerox win/mouse/menu interface

1975 07 MITS Altair first microcomputer

1978 08 Apple II computer (20 million sold)

1979 Sony cassette walkman

1979 Bricklin first spreadsheet Visicalc

1980 cd and flash introduced

1981 09 IBM PC mother of all modern pcs

In the memory of Gerrit Kraan, typewriter repair